2019 Agenda

Engine Operating Variables

Types of Engines
  • Naturally Aspirated Engines
  • Supercharged Engines
  • Scavenger Type Two-Stroke Engines
  • Pure Turbocharged Engines
Engine Performance Measures
  • Work
  • Horsepower
  • Mean Effective Pressure (MEP)
  • Torque Horsepower Terminology
Fuel Consumption Measurement
  • Brake Specific Fuel Consumption
  • Rated Brake Specific Fuel Consumption
Understanding Air-Fuel Mixtures
  • Parabolic Burning Curve
  • Flame Front Velocity
  • Advantages of Air-Fuel Mixture Controls
  • Disadvantages of an Incorrect Air-Fuel Ratio
  • Automatic Mixture Controls
Effects on Operations
  • Engine Speed Variations
  • Variation in Air-Fuel Ratio
  • Variation in Ignition Timing
  • Fuel Manifold Pressure Changes
  • Air Manifold Temperature Changes
  • Misfiring Cylinders
  • Fuel Btu Variation
  • Mechanical Problems
  • Clean Burn and Lean Burn Combustion
Exhaust Emissions
  • Clean Air Act Regulations
  • Emission Formation in Reciprocating Engines
  • Emission Control Technologies
  • Typical Combustion Modification Technologies
  • Theoretical Basis for High Pressure Fuel Gas Injection
  • Automatic Air-Fuel Ratio Controls for Stoichiometric and Lean-Burn Carbureted Engines

Naturally Aspirated Four-Stroke Cycle Engines

  • After increasing Engine rpm from 800 rpm to 900 rpm
  • After Opening a Picket on #1 Compressor Cylinder
  • After Retarding the Ignition Timing 2X
  • After Manually Leaning the Mixture from 10:1 to 10:5:1 (Volumetrically)
  • After the Air Manifold Temperature Increases from 80xF to 90xF
  • After the Btu of the Fuel Increases from 900 to 950 (LHV)
  • After the #1 Cylinder Begins to Misfire

Scavenged Two-Stroke Cycle Engine

  • After Decreasing Engine Speed from 330 rpm to 300 rpm
  • After Closing a Pocket on #1 Compressor
  • After Advancing the Ignition Timing 2x
  • After the Air Manifold Temperature Decreases 10xF
  • After the Fuel Btu Decreases from 1050 to 1025 (HHV)
  • After #6 Cylinder Lays Out

Naturally Aspirated Rich-Burn Four-Stroke Cycle Engine with NSCR

  • After Increasing Speed from 800 rpm to 900 rpm
  • After Opening a Pocket on Compressor #1
  • After Manually Richening the Mixture from 10:1 to 9.5:1
  • After Retarding the Ignition Timing 2×

Turbocharged Rich-Burn Four-Stroke Cycle Engine with NSCR

  • After Manually Leaning the Mixture from 9:1 to 9.5:1
  • After Advancing the Ignition Timing 1×
  • After Decreasing Air Manifold Temperature 10×F
  • After Decreasing Btu from 1,000 to 975 (LHV)

Lean-Burn Constant Pressure Turbocharged Four-Stroke Cycle Engine with Oxidation Catalyst

  • After Increasing Speed from 900 to 1,000 rpm
  • After Discharge Pressure Increases 10 psig
  • After Retarding the Ignition Timing 1×
  • After Manually Leaning the Mixture from 15:1 to 17:1 (Volumetrically)
  • After Increasing the Btu from 930 to 970 (LHV).

Lean-Burn Pulse Type Turbocharged Four-StrokeCycle Engine with Oxidation Catalyst

  • After Deactivating the End Crankend of the #1 Compressor
  • After the Air Manifold Temperature Decreases 10×F After
  • Decreasing the Fuel Btu from 980 to 930 (LHV)

Two-Stroke Cycle Engine with AMC Sensing Fuel Manifold Pressure as an Indication of Load

  • After Decreasing the Engine Speed from 475 to 425 rpm
  • After Closing a Pocket on the #1 Compressor Cylinder
  • After Advancing the Ignition Timing 2×
  • After Manually Leaning the Air Fuel Ratio from 15:1 to 16:1 (Volumetrically) After
  • Partially Closing the Fuel Valve on the #1 Cylinder While Balancing After the Fuel
  • Btu Decreases 975 to 925 (LHV)
  • After Air Manifold Temperature Decreases 10×F .

Two-Stroke Cycle Engine with AMC Sensing Fuel Flow as an Indication of Load

  • After Increasing the Engine Speed from 250 to 275 rpm
  • After Ambient Loading the Unit to 125% Torque
  • After Retarding the Ignition Timing 2×
  • After Manually Richening the Air Fuel Ratio from 15:1 to 14:1 (Volumetrically) After
  • Partially Opening the Fuel Valve on the #1 Cylinder While
  • After the Fuel Btu Increases from 1,000 to 950 (LHV) After
  • Air Manifold Temperature Increases 10×F

Two-Stroke Cycle Engine with AMC Sensing Fuel Energy Rate (FER) as an Indication of Load

  • After Decreasing the Engine Speed from 475 to 425 rpm
  • After Closing a Pocket on #1 Compressor Cylinder
  • After Advancing the Ignition Timing 2×
  • After Manually Leaning the Air Fuel Ratio from 15:1 to 16:1 (Volumetrically) After
  • Partially Closing the Fuel Valve on the #1 Cylinder While
  • After the Fuel Btu Decreases 975 to 925 (LHV) After Air
  • Manifold Temperature Decreases 10×F